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[工作经验] 基于研究Linux内核开发工具kcov配置介绍

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发表于 2018-9-21 14:33:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
代码覆盖率(Code Coverage)是反映测试用例对被测软件覆盖程序的重要指标,kcov是用于随机测试中合适表达代码覆盖率的一种工具。

前置需求
内核需要配置

CONFIG_KCOV=y
CONFIG_KCOV需要231296以上版本的gcc,如果需要收集比较操作

CONFIG_KCOV_ENABLE_COMPARISONS=y
只有挂载了debugfs,才可以访问配置数据。

使用方法

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

#define KCOV_INIT_TRACE                     _IOR('c', 1, unsigned long)
#define KCOV_ENABLE                 _IO('c', 100)
#define KCOV_DISABLE                        _IO('c', 101)
#define COVER_SIZE                  (64<<10)
#define KCOV_TRACE_PC  0
#define KCOV_TRACE_CMP 1
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int fd;
    unsigned long *cover, n, i;
    /* A single fd descriptor allows coverage collection on a single
     * thread.
     */
    fd = open("/sys/kernel/debug/kcov", O_RDWR);
    if (fd == -1)
            perror("open"), exit(1);
    /* Setup trace mode and trace size. */
    if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_INIT_TRACE, COVER_SIZE))
            perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
    /* Mmap buffer shared between kernel- and user-space. */
    cover = (unsigned long*)mmap(NULL, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long),
                                 PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
    if ((void*)cover == MAP_FAILED)
            perror("mmap"), exit(1);
    /* Enable coverage collection on the current thread. */
    if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, KCOV_TRACE_PC))
            perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
    /* Reset coverage from the tail of the ioctl() call. */
    __atomic_store_n(&cover[0], 0, __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
    /* That's the target syscal call. */
    read(-1, NULL, 0);
    /* Read number of PCs collected. */
    n = __atomic_load_n(&cover[0], __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            printf("0x%lx\n", cover[i + 1]);
    /* Disable coverage collection for the current thread. After this call
     * coverage can be enabled for a different thread.
     */
    if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_DISABLE, 0))
            perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
    /* Free resources. */
    if (munmap(cover, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long)))
            perror("munmap"), exit(1);
    if (close(fd))
            perror("close"), exit(1);
    return 0;
}
输出信息

SyS_read
fs/read_write.c:562
__fdget_pos
fs/file.c:774
__fget_light
fs/file.c:746
__fget_light
fs/file.c:750
__fget_light
fs/file.c:760
__fdget_pos
fs/file.c:784
SyS_read
fs/read_write.c:562


/* Same includes and defines as above. */

/* Number of 64-bit words per record. */
#define KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP 4

/*
* The format for the types of collected comparisons.
*
* Bit 0 shows whether one of the arguments is a compile-time constant.
* Bits 1 & 2 contain log2 of the argument size, up to 8 bytes.
*/

#define KCOV_CMP_CONST          (1 << 0)
#define KCOV_CMP_SIZE(n)        ((n) << 1)
#define KCOV_CMP_MASK           KCOV_CMP_SIZE(3)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int fd;
    uint64_t *cover, type, arg1, arg2, is_const, size;
    unsigned long n, i;
    fd = open("/sys/kernel/debug/kcov", O_RDWR);
    if (fd == -1)
            perror("open"), exit(1);
    if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_INIT_TRACE, COVER_SIZE))
            perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
    /*
    * Note that the buffer pointer is of type uint64_t*, because all
    * the comparison operands are promoted to uint64_t.
    */
    cover = (uint64_t *)mmap(NULL, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long),
                                 PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
    if ((void*)cover == MAP_FAILED)
            perror("mmap"), exit(1);
    /* Note KCOV_TRACE_CMP instead of KCOV_TRACE_PC. */
    if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, KCOV_TRACE_CMP))
            perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
    __atomic_store_n(&cover[0], 0, __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
    read(-1, NULL, 0);
    /* Read number of comparisons collected. */
    n = __atomic_load_n(&cover[0], __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            type = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 1];
            /* arg1 and arg2 - operands of the comparison. */
            arg1 = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 2];
            arg2 = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 3];
            /* ip - caller address. */
            ip = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 4];
            /* size of the operands. */
            size = 1 << ((type & KCOV_CMP_MASK) >> 1);
            /* is_const - true if either operand is a compile-time constant.*/
            is_const = type & KCOV_CMP_CONST;
            printf("ip: 0x%lx type: 0x%lx, arg1: 0x%lx, arg2: 0x%lx, "
                    "size: %lu, %s\n",
                    ip, type, arg1, arg2, size,
            is_const ? "const" : "non-const");
    }
    if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_DISABLE, 0))
            perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
    /* Free resources. */
    if (munmap(cover, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long)))
            perror("munmap"), exit(1);
    if (close(fd))
            perror("close"), exit(1);
    return 0;
}

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